Registration and Early References in Ridgmont
In 1672 Charles II issued a Declaration of Toleration for Protestants dissenting from the Church of England; this had the effect of some dissenting meeting houses registering with the Secretary of State. The Toleration Act of 1689 enshrined the right of Protestants to dissent from the Church of England and, once again, encouraged meeting houses to register voluntarily with local quarter sessions and Anglican church. Registration provided protection against persecution, laying a duty of protection upon magistrates and so was popular with nonconformists. Most registrations were made with quarter sessions until the middle of the 18th century, presumably due to the mutual antagonism of nonconformists and established Church. However, from that point registration with the Church, via the local archdeaconry began to become the favoured method, because the archdeaconry Registrar would issue a licence at any time rather than during the days each quarter when the quarter sessions met.
Visitations by the Bishop of Lincoln to Bedfordshire in the early 18th century give some idea as to the number of nonconformists in each parish from returns made by the vicar or rector. Former County Archivist Patricia Bell has compiled returns from 1706 to 1720 for the Bedfordshire Historical Records Society (Volume 81, published 2002); information for Ridgmont includes the following:
1706: "… [it] has 82 families in it. Of these more than halfe [sic] are Anabaptists [Baptists], who have a Meeting house in this parish".
1709: "Families 73; Souls about 375. About halfe of them Anabaptists. They have a public Meeting. William Butler their Teacher. They meet every Sunday about 100 in number".
1712: "Families 65, of which 37 come all to church. The rest are mostly Anabaptists".
1717: "Families Sixty one Familys [sic], and Twenty four of them Dissenters, and all or most of them Anabaptists. Meeting houses We have a Licensed Meeting. I suppose they are Anabaptists. They assemble every Lord's Day by Fifty or Sixty at a time, some of them from Adjacent Parishes, and Samuel Butler leads them".
1720: "Families In the Parish of Ridgmont I've seventy three Families. Of these twelve are Dissenters And they go under the denomination of Anabaptists. Meeting houses I've one Licensd [sic] Meeting-House, in my said Parish, an Anabaptist. They assemble upon every Sunday. About Eighty in Number. And Samuell Butler of the said Parish is their Teacher".
These numbers vary quite considerably. It may be that the dissenters were still secretive; fearing some sort of reprisal, or it may be that the Church of England parson did not enquire too closely. Alternatively, people may have been quite volatile in their allegiance.
Bedfordshire & Luton Archives & Records Service has a reasonable number of registrations of nonconformist meeting houses in both the Quarter Sessions and Archdeaconry of Bedford archives. Registration continued through the 19th century even though persecution faded away - this was because registered buildings were allowed to claim exemption from parish poor rates, were exempt from control by the Charity Commission and were allowed to be licensed to carry out marriages. These things meant that registration became almost compulsory in practice for well established nonconformist meetings. This is fortunate for the local historian because sometimes the only surviving references to a nonconformist meeting occur as registrations. One drawback with the registrations are that they do not usually inform the reader of the particular type of denomination involved, though sometimes it is possible to infer it from other evidence.
Edwin Welch researched the history of registrations in Bedfordshire for Bedfordshire Historical Records Society Volume 75 Bedfordshire Chapels and Meeting Houses [published in 1996] and found that on 1st May 1672 the house of William Jarvis was licensed by the Congregationalists. The remaining registrations were by the Baptists and the Wesleyan Methodists.